Welcome To Ravi Tawi Irrigation Complex:

Er. H.C Jerath (Chief Engineer, RTIC-Jammu)

Brief Note on Ravi Tawi Canal.

A large chunk of Kandi Belt lies on the upstream as well on downstream side of Jammu Pathankot National Highway Road between Ravi River & Tawi Rivers which is partially cultivated and at the mercy of rain gods. In order to provide assured irrigation to about 1,50,000 acres of land from waters of River Ravi and Tawi the Government  of J&K formulated Ravi Tawi Irrigation Complex as a composite project comprising of Ravi Canal & Tawi Canal.

Tawi Canal
The Tawi Canal project was taken up by the state Government in late sixties and was completed/commissioned in the year 1973 with a provision of lifting 300 cusecs of water from river Tawi with pump house constructed on the left bank of river Tawi near Bahu Fort with an estimate cost of Rs. 745 Lacs . The pump house is having six (6 Nos) pumps (including 1 No. stand by) with the lifting capacity of 60 cusecs of each pump. The Main Tawi Canal is 28.80 Km in length with 11 Nos. distributaries and total length of distribution system being 175 Kms and CCA to the tune of 35000 Acres.

Ravi Canal
The project was formulated to utilize the share of J&K from Ravi water (0.69 MAF). Ravi Canal network was to tap Ravi water from Shahpurkandi Dam to be constructed by the Punjab Government and accordingly the main canal was designed to carry a discharge of 1150 cusecs of water so as to enable the J&K State to utilize its agreemented share of water from River Ravi. As per Inter-State Agreement, the Jammu and Kashmir State is entitled to 0.69 MAF of supplies from the River Ravi which includes the pre-partition utilization of 0.04 MAF. The break up showing the utilization of this share of water by the J&K State is given hereunder: -
Present utilization of water through Kathua Canal, Keerian Gandial Canal & Old Basantpur Canal = 0.215 MAF
Balance available for diversion into Ravi Canal (0.69 MAf-215MAF) = 0.475 MAF
Water proposed to be lifted at Lakhanpur Lift Station and
Basantpur Lift Station (Interim arrangements to utilize part of 0.475 MAF till Shahpurkandi Dam
comes up) to put it into the constructed portion of Ravi Canal =       0.285 MAF
Balance yet to be drawn = 0.190 MAF

2.      To utilize balance share of 0.475 MAF of water, a project was formulated whereunder Ravi Canal from Thein Dam upto village Chak Salarian in Vijaypur Block was envisaged to be constructed. This Project was framed at an estimated cost of Rs. 29.84 Crores (for the construction of 82 Kms long Ravi Canal and its allied works to be taken off from the right bank of River Ravi at village Thein upto its tail at Chak Salarian (Vijaypur) as was approved by the Planning Commission, Government of India vide No. II-2(25)/75 dated 29 May 1973. In this proposal, the canal was to take off from the downstream of the tail-race of the Ranjit Sagar Dam with a designed discharge capacity of 1150 Cusecs.

Work on the main Ravi Canal was started in the year 1975-76. In the meantime, a bilateral agreement between the States of Jammu and Kashmir and Punjab was arrived at Delhi on 20th January 1979 wherein it was mutually agreed that the J&K State shall now take-off the Ravi Canal from the proposed Shahpurkandi Dam to be constructed by Punjab Government, 12 Kms Downstream of the Ranjit Sagar Dam along the River Ravi, which shall be started at the First Technically Feasible Opportunity without loss of command as envisaged earlier from downstream of tail race of Ranit Sagar Dam by raising the height of the Shahpurkandi Dam to the required level. The Jammu and Kashmir Government has, however, to contribute towards the cost of the Construction of Shahpurkandi Barrage (Dam) an amount equal to the difference in costs of taking –off Ravi Canal from below the Thein Dam and that required for taking of the same from Shahpurkandi Barrage (Dam). A mutually agreed estimate of the cost based on rates prevalent in 1979-80 drawn up by the two States has been worked out as Rs. 14.98 Crores.

The work on Ravi Canal was stated in 1975-76 and under phase –I the Ujh Barrage & Ravi Canal downstream of this barrage up to village Chak Salarian and commissioned in 1981-82 with created potential of 12000 Ha.

As an interim arrangement a lift station was created at Lakhanpur to lift 200 cusecs of water from Kathua Canal and the said work completed in 83-84 as phase-II of the project and additional potential of 15000 HA was created.

Further another lift station was constructed at Basantpur and commission in 88-89 as phase-III of the project to lift 500 cusecs from River Ravi and additional potential of 13000 Ha Thus totaling 40000 Ha was created.

As on date, the Shahpurkandi Dam has not been taken up for construction and the Punjab Government is not in a position to commit any firm date of its being taken up and of its subsequent completion even after 33 years of ifs commitment made in 1979.

However, due to insufficient releases of water from Ranjit Sagar Dam coupled with low voltage & Machinery problems and non-construction of Shahpur Kandi Dam only part share of Ravi water could be utilized. Thus due to non-availability of  J&K Share viz 0.475 MAF from Shahpurkandi Dam, the J&K State has been able to utilize  only 11134 Hect (27,500 Acres) of potential against the total potential of 53900 Hect. (133200Acres)

As per the communication received from the Chief Secretary of Punjab State vide his D.O No. 9/12/08-PJ(S)/ 1265 Dated 17.07.2008, the Punjab Government is claiming Rs. 106.00 Crores towards the Irrigation Portion of the Thein Dam Project in accordance with its share in the water from storage i.e. 10% of the total cost of the Thein Dam Project attributable to irrigation portion thereof.

The Government of J&K studied the whole matter and went into search for some alternate measures to draw its full share of Ravi water, besides, demand of compensation from Punjab Government on account of losses suffered by it .
The brief gist of whole proceedings is as under:

Inter Dominion Agreement
The waters of Western and Eastern Rivers were shared by Governments of India & Pakistan vide  Inter Dominion Agreement signed between the two domains in 1948. As a follow up action, while sharing out the water of Ravi river, an additional allocation of 0.65MAF  was allotted to J&K state vide Inter-State Agreement of  29th January 1955. In total 0.69MAF was allotted to J&K state from river Ravi which includes 0.04MAF Pre-partition Utilisation.
At present the J&K state is utilising 0.215 MAF through Kathua Canal , Kerrian Gandial Canal and Basantpur Canal for irrigation.

Balance to be utilised by Ravi canal =  0.475MAF.

Project for Construction of Ravi Canal formulated in 1972 and approved by the Planning Commission, Government of India  vide No: ii-2(25)/75 dated: 29-05-1973. The work on Ravi Canal  was started in  the year 1974-75 for its construction  from tail race of Ranjit Sagar Dam upto Vijaypur for a length of 82 kms.

In the meantime  on 20th January 1979  an agreement  was drawn  between the State of J&K and Punjab and it was agreed that J&K shall  draw the allocated share from Shahpur Kandi Dam to be constructed by the Punjab Govt. 12 kms downstream  of Ranjit Sagar Dam.

AS per  Clause (7) of agreement, the   J&K State was entitled for 20% share in total power generation at  Thein Dam and Shahpur Kandi Barrage (153.60MWs) at the cost of generation at Bus Bar.

In early 80’s, it was understood that Shahpur Kandi Dam has to take minimum of 10  to 12 years to come up. As such,   an Interim arrangement  in the shape of 200 Cusecs capacity  Lakhanpur Lift Station  and  500 Cusecs capacity  Basantpur Lift Station were constructed and commissioned in  the year 1983 and 1987 respectively.

Till  late 1980’s,  79.50 kms out of  82 kms of Main Ravi canal with the Distribution Network of 475 kms  were completed but full irrigation potential  could not be utilized due to insufficient releases of water from Ranjit Sagar Dam coupled with voltage & Siltation problems and non construction of Shahpurkandi Barrage. With the passage of time the pumping machinery also became old by 20 to 30 years and it efficiency has also decreased. The result was that against 700 cusecs only about 300 cusecs is being lifted at present. The Ravi Canal crosses Ujh River near Jasrota temple where a gated barrage has been constructed of  356 Meters width. The water of Ujh River is also being utilized through Ravi Canal for feeding earstwhile Ujh canal (constructed by Maharaja of J&K) but its quantity varies from 100 to 300 cusecs . The total water thus available by lifting from Ravi Canal as well from Ujh River is not sufficient to irrigate full command of Ravi Canal.

The  non-availability  of  water  resulted  in potential utilization of 27,500 Acres  (11,134 Hectares) only against the total potential of 1,33,200 Acres (53900 Hectares) thereby resulting in shortfall of 1,05,700 Acres (42766 Hectares).

Loss in terms of food grain production is = Rs. 250.00 Crores per annum.

Loss in terms of power generated from the year 2000 to October 2009

Total power generated = 13055 Million Units J&K share @ 20% = 2611 Million Units Loss= Rs. 2349 Crores.
Loss in terms of Food grains for 25 years = Rs. 6250 Crores.
Total Loss suffered by J&K = Rs. 8599 Crores.

Land Compensation: The total land acquired by Ranjit Sagar Dam in 22 villages of tehsil Basholi and Kathua is of the order of 111740 Kanals. The total awarded amount of compensation  is Rs. 83.67 Crores out of which only Rs. 68.87 Crores have been paid by Punjab Government. Leaving a balance of Rs. 14.08 Crores. This combined with payment due on account of Forest Department, pending court cases, rehabilitation package for  767 dam oustees whose residential houses have come under submergence and  interest, amounts to Rs. 67.41 Crores. This amount is still payable by the Punjab Government.

The demand of the Punjab Government claiming Rs. 106 Crores as 10% of total cost incurred on Ranjit Sagar Dam attributable to irrigation portion and is alleged to be payable by the J&K Government to Punjab as per interstate agreement of 20th January  of 1979 is totally unjustified at this stage because Punjab has no moral right in view of the fact that they have neither supplied the awarded share of water from river Ravi nor any power generated from it.

Further, to say which is most  important, is that the State of Punjab on 12.07.2004 enacted "Punjab Termination  Act  of  2004"  and  terminated all  the  agreements relating to Sharing of  Ravi-Beas water with other States.

The  J&K Government explored  options  to take off  Ravi canal  from upstream  of  Ranjit Sagar Dam.  A committee of four Chief Engineers was constituted for assessing the feasibility of “Extension of  Main Ravi Canal from  Basantpur to Upstream  of  Ranjit Sagar  Dam (Reservoir) - Multipurpose  Hydro-Irrigation  Power Project near village Satwain in District Kathua, J&K State”. The Committee so constituted unanimously concluded that the scheme  is technically viable for adoption.

The Department of PHE I & F.C J&K has been raising this issue in various meetings and fora of the Government of India vociferously pleading for its entitlement of water and power share. During the visit of Cabinet Secretary and his team of officers to Srinagar on 05-06 October 2009 the issue again came up under discussion with Secretary of Water Resources , GOI . Then again during the visit of Hon’ble Prime Minister of India to J&K on 28th October 2009 , the Hon’ble Minister for PHE I& F.C stated the position of State Government on construction of remaining portion of Ravi Canal by taking off the same from the reservoir of Ranjit Sagar Dam near village Satwain upto Basantpur and linking it with existing Ravi Canal. This was followed by special meeting convened by Union Secretary , Ministry of Water Resources, GOI at New Delhi on 04.11.2009 to discuss the issues of Shahpur Kandi Project between J&K and Punjab. The Principal Secretary, PHE/I & F.C J&K  clearly stated the view point and intentions of state government to avail of its full  allocated share of water of Ravi River by constructing the remaining portion of 9 Kms long link channel. Another round of discussion took place on 26.11.2009 during the COS meeting taken by Union Cabinet Secretary on Indus Basin in the Cabinet Secretariat , Rashtrapati Bhawan, New Delhi.  The stand of J&K Government was again reiterated there by the Principal Secretary PHE/I & F.C J&K.

The report of the Committee of Chief Engineers was placed before the State Cabinet alongwith all the other facts as mentioned above and the State Cabinet accorded. In principal approval for construction of Extension of Main Ravi Canal from Basantpur to upstream of Ranjit Sagar Dam near village Satwain” vide No. 41/02/2010 dated 15.02.2010 and preparation of DPR for the project. The work for preparation of DPR was allotted to M/s WAPCOS Ltd (Government of India undertaking) after observing all codal formalities.
M/s WAPCOS conducted detailed survey of the area and DPR has  been submitted by them in March – April 2011.

Salient features of the Project Report are as under:
a) Estimated cost of the project = Rs 410 crores
i. Civil works (canal) = Rs 275 crores
ii. Power works = Rs 135 crores

b)  Length of the canal = Rs.9.10  kms
i. length of the tunnels(11 nos) = Rs.6.10  kms
ii. length of Ducts & Aqueducts = Rs.1.580kms
iii. length of open channel = Rs.0.70  kms

c)  Design Discharge = 1150 cusecs
d)  Irrigation Potential(ICA) = 133200 Acres
e) Actual Potential utilised = 27500 Acres
f)  Power Houses Generation = 21 MW
(Total Head 88m)
i.  Power House No 1 = 12 MW
ii. Power House No 2 = 9 MW

Out of estimated cost of Rs. 275.00  Crores for the Civil Works, it has been proposed to float the tenders for Canal Works only comprising of intake structures, Tunnels, RCC Ducts, Aqueducts, Open Channel, Civil Works of Hydro Mechanical nature i.e. Surge Shaft, Main Penstock and bypass arrangement etc. Amounting to Rs. 240 Crores as a single work on EPC Basis.